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How Cannabis Legalization Affects the Pharmaceutical Industry




A hot topic in the United States is legalizing cannabis. It is no surprise that the cannabis industry is booming as more states legalize it for medical and recreational purposes. However, the legalization of cannabis has also had a major impact on the pharmaceutical industry. Due to the loss of profits from cannabis sales of up to $10 billion, the industry is now looking for ways to compensate. Despite the lost profits, the pharmaceutical industry has increased its sales of other products. We will examine how cannabis legalization affects the pharmaceutical industry in this article.

What is the impact of cannabis legalization on the pharmaceutical industry?

The impact of cannabis legalization on the pharmaceutical industry is largely unknown. However, it is expected that the legalization of cannabis will have a significant impact on the pharmaceutical industry. This is because cannabis-based medications have become popular in recent years, and this trend has been increasing. In fact, a recent study found that cannabis-based drugs have increased in popularity by more than 400% since 2009. The cannabis industry reached $25 billion in sales in 2021, and this market is expected to grow to $57 billion by 2030.

How much money is the cannabis industry taking from the pharmaceutical industry?

Cannabis is generating a lot of revenue from the pharmaceutical industry. As a result of cannabis legalization, the pharmaceutical industry is losing a lot of money. As a result, cannabis-based medicines can help people deal with a wide range of conditions. Cannabis-based medications have medicinal properties and are used to make cannabis-based medications. Additionally, it helps people get relief from a wide variety of pains. Thus, the cannabis industry is taking a lot of money from the pharmaceutical industry.

How have the pharmaceutical industry and cannabis industry responded to the legalization?

As of late, the pharmaceutical industry has faced challenges due to cheaper and more accessible alternatives. With new medications hitting the market, and opioid treatments being in the forefront, the pharmaceutical industry has increased profits in some areas lost to cannabis consumers. The cannabis industry is also struggling, but they have recently been able to create new medications and products and expanded licensing that have spurred colossal demand. Together, these two industries are likely to grow, with cannabis providing a cheaper alternative to the pharmaceutical industry.


As a result of cannabis legalization, prescription drug use is declining. This is because cannabis is a natural alternative to some prescription drugs, such as opioids, resulting in a decline in the use of pharmaceutical drugs, and a corresponding increase in medical cannabis use. For the pharmaceutical industry, which has been experiencing declining sales for years, this is a significant change.

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Eccentricity: Unusual Hobbies Across the Globe

Embark on a whimsical journey through the realm of quirky and eccentric hobbies with “Eccentricity: Unusual Hobbies Across the Globe!” Explore the thrilling landscapes with Extreme Ironing enthusiasts, sculpt transient beauty with soap, roll down hills chasing cheese, create pixelated masterpieces with spreadsheets, float in serenity with Indoor Skydiving Yoga, groom vibrant visions on furry friends, and join the quacking challenges of Competitive Duck Herding! Celebrate the diversity and creativity of the human spirit as we uncover the stories, communities, and cultural impacts of these extraordinary pastimes!




By unusual hobbies

Welcome to a journey through the quirkiest corners of human creativity, where Eccentricity explores Unusual Hobbies Across the Globe! This venture uncovers the extraordinary realms where ironing meets adventure, soap turns into ephemeral art, wheels of cheese become racing stars, spreadsheets morph into canvases, yoga takes flight, dogs transform into vibrant masterpieces, and ducks quack their way through competitive herding. Unravel the fascinating stories, diverse communities, and cultural richness that lie beneath these unconventional pastimes, and celebrate the boundless imagination that makes our world a truly colorful tapestry!

Extreme Ironing – Pressing On in the Wilderness

The Origin Story

Our journey into the eccentric begins with the peculiar yet intriguing Extreme Ironing. Tracing its roots to Leicester, England, we find Phil Shaw, an ordinary man with an extraordinary vision, turning a mundane chore into an adrenaline-fueled adventure. This unconventional combination of ironing and extreme environments sparked curiosity, leading to a worldwide community of thrill-seekers eager to flatten creases on mountaintops, underwater, or even mid-air!

The Rise of a Global Community

Fueled by the Internet and social media, Extreme Ironing enthusiasts from different corners of the globe connected, sharing stories of their daring exploits and plans for the next adventure. The community’s growth peaked with the organization of the Extreme Ironing World Championships in 2002, which saw competitors from around ten countries showcase their ironing prowess in challenging environments.

A Closer Look: Extreme Ironing World Championships

The Championships brought together a diverse group of ironists, each eager to outdo the other in creativity and skill. The competition had various categories, including urban, water, forest, and freestyle, allowing participants to push the boundaries of the sport. The event garnered media attention, further propelling Extreme Ironing into the global spotlight.

Extreme ironing an unusual hobby.

Fun Fact

Did you know that Ben Gibbons set a world record for the highest altitude Extreme Ironing on Mount Everest at an altitude of 5,440 meters? Talk about taking your chores to new heights!

Soap Sculpting – Delicate Designs in Transience

Delving into the fragrant world of soap sculpting, we discover a delicate dance between impermanence and beauty. Originating in Thailand, this ephemeral art form started as a means to create decorative floats for the Loy Krathong festival. The intricate designs, primarily floral, are a testament to the artist’s skill and the transient nature of the medium.

Worldwide Recognition and Artistic Exchange

As soap sculpting gained international recognition, artists from different countries participated in exhibitions, showcasing their unique interpretations and techniques. The global platform allowed for cultural and artistic exchange, contributing to the evolution of this delicate craft. Workshops and institutions offering courses in soap sculpting have further nurtured aspiring artists, ensuring the art form’s continued growth.

A Closer Look: International Soap Sculpting Competitions

These competitions serve as a convergence point for artists worldwide, fostering a sense of community and mutual appreciation for the craft. The events highlight the diversity of designs and the innovative use of a medium that is both tactile and fragrant. Artists compete for accolades, pushing the boundaries of what can be achieved with a bar of soap.

Soap Sculpting
Soap Sculpting

Fun Fact

The intricacy of soap sculpting has led to the creation of designs that can take up to several days to complete, only to dissolve gradually when used!

Cheese Rolling – Chasing Wheels of Fortune

Cheese rolling involves chasing wheels of cheese down dangerously steep hills in England. Dating back over 200 years, it began as a celebratory tradition but evolved into a risky spectacle. Competitors tumble down the slope, risking major injury in hopes of catching the cheese.

Community, Camaraderie and Controversy

While official events got cancelled due to hazards, enthusiasts still come together to uphold the tradition. The atmosphere combines danger with communal festivity. However, cheese rolling draws criticism from safety advocates concerned about injuries. Thrill seekers argue traditions evolve naturally.

Fun Fact

In 1997, a cheese reached a top speed of 70 mph due to the steepness of the slope! Faster than many cars accelerate!

Spreadsheet Art – Beauty in Numbers

Spreadsheet art uses the grids of Excel or other spreadsheet software to create digital artwork pixel-by-pixel. Artists build complex images by coloring spreadsheet cells and relying on natural gradients. Detail emerges as viewers zoom out on thousands of tiny cells.

Online Galleries and Algorithmic Artwork

Spreadsheet artists share their artwork online and enthuse about the creative possibilities within mundane software. Some artists program spreadsheet formulas to algorithmically generate parts of their images. The hobby sits at the intersection of mathematics, digital art, and computer programming. As a digital artist- this is something that is going on my list of things to try!

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A non traditional hobby is making art in exel.
A non traditional hobby is making art in exel.

Fun Fact

Microsoft even hosted an art competition to showcase Excel’s hidden artistic potential, attracting over 1,000 submissions!

Indoor Skydiving Yoga – Zen in the Wind

Elevating Traditional Practice

Indoor Skydiving Yoga offers a harmonious blend of serenity and exhilaration. This innovative practice challenges the traditional norms of yoga, introducing an element of dynamism through the use of vertical wind tunnels. Practitioners experience heightened concentration, balance, and body awareness as they strike yoga poses while floating mid-air.

The Formation of Dedicated Communities

The uniqueness of Indoor Skydiving Yoga has given rise to dedicated communities that explore and promote the benefits of this unconventional practice. Participants often describe a sense of liberation and heightened self-awareness, attributing these benefits to the combination of aerial movement and meditative focus.

A Closer Look: Benefits of Indoor Skydiving Yoga

This practice offers both physical and mental benefits, including improved muscle strength, enhanced focus, and stress relief. The challenge of maintaining yoga poses while suspended in air adds a new dimension to the practice, encouraging participants to explore their limits and develop a deeper connection with their bodies.

Indoor Skydiving Yoga
Indoor Skydiving Yoga

Fun Fact

Indoor Skydiving Yoga practitioners often use visualization techniques to enhance their experience, imagining themselves floating above clouds or hovering over scenic landscapes!

Competitive Dog Grooming – Vibrant Visions in Fur

Unleashing Creativity on Four Legs

In the world of Competitive Dog Grooming, groomers and their canine companions collaborate to bring vibrant visions to life. Utilizing safe dyes and expert grooming techniques, groomers create elaborate designs, ranging from pop culture references to fantastical creatures, all showcased on the dogs’ fur.

A Platform for Artistic Expression and Animal Welfare

The competitions provide a stage for groomers to exhibit their talents while adhering to guidelines that prioritize the well-being of the participating dogs. These events celebrate the unique bond between humans and animals and the limitless possibilities of creative expression, all while ensuring the safety and comfort of the furry models.

A Closer Look: Themes and Designs

Competitive Dog Grooming has seen a plethora of themes and designs, with groomers drawing inspiration from movies, nature, and mythology. The intricate designs require hours of meticulous work, showcasing the groomers’ dedication and the dogs’ patience and trust.

Unusual hobbies- competitive dog grooming.
Unusual hobbies- competitive dog grooming.

Fun Fact

Some dogs seem to enjoy the grooming process and the attention they receive during competitions, adding an extra layer of joy to the events!

Competitive Duck Herding – Quacking Up a Challenge

Setting the Feathers in Motion

Who would have thought that the tranquil and amiable duck could be the center of a hobby as eccentric and delightful as Competitive Duck Herding? Originating from rural traditions where ducks were herded for agricultural purposes, this quirky activity has evolved into a form of competition that has enthusiasts flocking together to showcase their herding prowess.

Duck Herding Communities – A Quack Pack of Hobbies

Bridging the gap between rural traditions and modern-day amusement, Competitive Duck Herding has hatched communities worldwide. Participants, affectionately known as “duck herders,” gather in open spaces, armed with enthusiasm and herding sticks, guiding ducks through obstacle courses in a race against time. The camaraderie among competitors and the cheerful quacking of ducks create an atmosphere of joy and friendly rivalry.

A Closer Look: Duck Herding Competitions

The world of Competitive Duck Herding is adorned with events that celebrate the unique bond between humans and ducks. The competitions are structured around obstacle courses, with herders guiding a flock of ducks through a series of challenges. The goal? To demonstrate agility, cooperation, and, most importantly, the harmonious connection between the herder and the feathered participants.

Points of Interest: Obstacle Courses

The obstacle courses in these competitions are ingeniously designed, incorporating water features, bridges, and gates, challenging both the ducks and the herders. The courses are a test of strategy, patience, and understanding of duck behavior, with herders vying for the title of the ultimate duck guide.

Competitive Duck Herding
Competitive Duck Herding

Fun Fact

Ducks used in the competitions are often trained from a young age, and they form a close bond with their herders. Some ducks even display a playful personality, adding an extra layer of entertainment to the competitions!

Impact on Popular Culture

The charm of Competitive Duck Herding has not gone unnoticed in popular culture. The activity has been featured in various television shows and documentaries, highlighting the quirky and endearing nature of herding ducks. These portrayals have contributed to the growing interest in the hobby, inspiring more people to join the “quack pack.”

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Eccentric Hobbies All Wrapped Up

From the adrenaline-fueled heights of Extreme Ironing to the delicate, ephemeral art of Soap Sculpting, each hobby unveils a unique facet of human creativity. Dive into the chaotic thrill of Cheese Rolling, marvel at the pixelated masterpieces of Spreadsheet Art, and find Zen amidst the wind with Indoor Skydiving Yoga. Witness the vibrant expressions of Competitive Dog Grooming and join the cheerful quackery of Competitive Duck Herding. These unconventional pastimes, each with its distinct community and cultural impact, are a testament to the boundless imagination and adventurous spirit that define us. Subscribe for more silliness!

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Scented Secrets: 5 Terpenes You’ve Met Outside the Cannabis World!

Terpenes are the aromatic compounds responsible for the distinctive smells of cannabis strains. Over 200 different terpenes have been identified in the cannabis plant, each contributing to the wide spectrum of flavors, aromas, and effects. By understanding terpene profiles, consumers can select strains intentionally based on desired benefits. Beyond cannabis, these same terpenes that bring nuanced fragrance to bud also exist abundantly across the natural world. For example, the terpene limonene lends a zesty lemon scent when found in citrus fruits or cannabis. Myrcene produces an earthy, musky aroma reminiscent of cloves in both mango and some cannabis strains. Pinene conveys a pine forest scent whether in conifers or in a particular cannabis cultivar. Discovering terpenes both in and out of cannabis offers a deeper appreciation for these fragrant compounds.





Terpenes you've met outside the cannabis world.

Terpenes are aromatic compounds found abundantly in nature, especially in plants. These complex hydrocarbons are responsible for the distinctive smells we associate with plants – from the fresh lemon zing of citrus fruits to the soothing lavender fragrance of certain flowers.

In the cannabis plant, terpenes alongside cannabinoids like THC and CBD contribute to the wide spectrum of aromas, flavors, and effects found across different strains. Terpene profiles vary widely from strain to strain resulting in unique sensory experiences.

Citrus fruits have terpenes.
Citrus fruits have terpenes.

Understanding terpenes allows us to better appreciate the nuanced palate of cannabis. It also enables more targeted consumption by choosing strains with terpene profiles that align with desired effects and benefits.

Beyond the cannabis plant, terpenes play vital roles across the plant kingdom. They help attract pollinators and repel predators in nature. Their practical applications for humans span our food, medicines, cosmetics and more.

What Exactly Are Terpenes?

Terpenes are a large, diverse class of aromatic organic compounds produced in plants as well as some insects. The term “terpenes” refers to a broad category of hydrocarbons that contain hydrogen and carbon atoms.

They are synthesized in plant cells from precursor molecules such as pyrophosphates. Terpenes exist as oily liquids and evaporate easily at standard temperature and pressure. Most terpenes share a common molecular formula: C10H16

Terpenes alongside terpenoids (their oxygenated derivatives) comprise the largest group of phytochemicals, accounting for over 50,000 distinct compounds. They are the main constituents of plant essential oils and resins.

Chemically, terpenes consist of repeating isoprene units. The number of isoprene units determines terpene classification:

  • Monoterpenes – 2 isoprene units (C10H16)
  • Sesquiterpenes – 3 isoprene units (C15H24)
  • Diterpenes – 4 isoprene units (C20H32)
  • Triterpenes – 6 isoprene units (C30H48)
  • Tetraterpenes – 8 isoprene units (C40H64)
You know how we use LEGO blocks to build tall towers? Each type of tower here is like a different kind of chemical. And the blocks they're made of are called isoprene units. The more blocks, the bigger the tower! So, monoterpenes are like towers with 2 blocks, sesquiterpenes with 3 blocks, and so on.
For more of a visual understanding- think of each isoprene unit like a block, blocks that make towers. Each type of tower here is like a different kind of chemical. And the blocks they’re made of are called isoprene units. The more blocks, the bigger the tower! So, monoterpenes are like towers with 2 blocks, sesquiterpenes with 3 blocks, and so on.

The diverse molecular structures of terpenes are responsible for an equally wide spectrum of aromas, flavors, and effects. Subtle differences in their chemical structure can produce noticeably different smells.

For example, limonene and pinene both contain 10 carbon atoms but limonene has a lemon aroma while pinene smells resinous. These distinctive aromatic compounds interact with cell receptors in our nose impacting fragrance perception.

Terpenes in Cannabis: The Entourage Effect

Over 200 different terpenes have been identified in the cannabis plant. The mix of terpenes alongside cannabinoids like THC and CBD produce the Entourage Effect – a synergistic interaction that shapes the effects and aromas of different cannabis strains.

5 common terpenes found in and outside of the cannabis world:


This is the most predominant terpene in cannabis. Myrcene produces an earthy, musky aroma resembling cloves. It is commonly found in fruits like mango and herbs like hops. Myrcene induces relaxing, sedative effects. It also increases cell permeability allowing other terpenes and cannabinoids to better absorb.

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Mango's contain myrcene which is a cannabis terpene that is common in other things we know.
Mango’s contain myrcene which is a cannabis terpene that is common in other things we know.


As the name suggests, pinene produces a piney aroma much like a pine forest. It is found in conifers like pine trees and pine needles as well as herbs like rosemary and basil. Pinene acts as a bronchodilator potentially boosting airflow and alertness. It also enhances memory and concentration. Pinene also has various medicinal benefits.

Pinene can be found in various common things, like basil, pine needles, and pine trees.


This terpene has a strong citrusy smell evocative of lemon zest. It is naturally abundant in citrus fruits. Limonene quickens metabolism and raises serotonin levels for improved mood. It has anti-anxiety and stress-relieving properties. As a potent antibacterial and antifungal, limonene also promotes immunity.

Lemons and cannabis have limonene in common.
Lemons and cannabis have limonene in common.


This is the only terpene that directly interacts with the body’s endocannabinoid system. It has a spicy, peppery scent and taste. Caryophyllene is also found in spices like black pepper and cloves. It functions as a powerful anti-inflammatory and pain-reliever. It also reduces anxiety.

Black pepper has terpenes like Caryophyllene.
Black pepper has terpenes like Caryophyllene.


One of the most fragrant terpenes, linalool produces a floral lavender aroma. It is prevalent in lavender as well as mint. Linalool helps induce relaxation and sleep. It works as an anxiolytic agent that calms the nervous system bringing an overall sense of peace. It also boosts immunity.

Lavender contains linalool.
Lavender contains linalool.

The diverse terpene structures create an orchestra of flavors and effects in cannabis strains. Some strains will be more abundant in certain terpenes producing targeted benefits. For example, limonene-dominant strains can energize and thwart stress while linalool-rich strains can relax both body and mind.

Understanding terpene profiles allows consumers to identify strains better suited for desired needs whether that’s energy, focus, creativity, sleep or pain relief.

Terpenes in Everyday Life

Beyond the cannabis plant, terpenes play indispensable roles across the plant kingdom. Plants produce these aromatic compounds to attract pollinators like insects and repel predators like herbivores.

Plants produce these aromatic compounds to attract pollinators like insects.
Plants produce these aromatic compounds to attract pollinators like insects.

The fragrant terpene bouquets advertise nectar rewards to potential pollinators. These scented chemical cues also enable plant communication – signaling danger or summoning beneficial predators when pests are present.

For humans, terpenes have a diverse array of applications in our everyday lives. We may not know it, but terpenes impact much of what we eat, smell and use daily.

Here are some common uses of terpenes:

Fragrance Industry

The perfume industry relies heavily on terpenes to craft distinctive scents and fragrances. Limonene lends a lemon verbena zing while more woodsy terpenes like pine and cedar provide an earthy base. Floral terpenes like linalool and geraniol are used for their rosy aromas.

Terpene isolates are also used to create aromatic oils and candles
Terpene isolates are also used to create aromatic oils and candles

Companies isolate or synthetize particular terpenes to produce unique proprietary perfumes and colognes. Terpene isolates are also used to create aromatic oils and candles.

Food Industry

Terpenes contribute to the sensorial experience of eating through taste and smell. Limonene brings a citrusy flavor, pinene an herbal quality, and menthol a minty cooling sensation.

The food industry maximizes terpenes to elevate flavors. For example, terpenes called R-carvones provide spearmint flavoring. Menthol cools sensation in gum and candy. Thyme and oregano owe their robustness to terpenes like thymol.

Terpene isolates are also used to create aromatic oils and candles.
Terpene isolates are also used to create aromatic oils and candles.

Terpenes are Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) additives by the FDA to enhance taste, aroma, and preservation. They Terpene isolates are also used to create aromatic oils and candles

Health and Medicine

Some terpenes exhibit therapeutic properties from anti-inflammatory to antimicrobial. The phytochemical potential of terpenes is now being researched for health applications.

For example, limonene has gastroprotective effects useful in managing acid reflux and heartburn. Pinene helps clear airways – it is even being investigated as a natural bronchodilator. Linalool and caryophyllene have anxiolytic properties that ease stress and anxiety.

Terpenes feature prominently in aromatherapy. Inhaling lavender oil high in linalool targets mood disorders. Terpenes like borneol are also used in traditional Chinese medicine. As more research emerges, terpene therapies may grow in popularity.

Cleaning and Cosmetics

Citrus-scented cleaners leverage limonene for its clean, freshening aroma and antimicrobial potency. Linalool and eucalyptol (minty terpene) are used in hygiene products for their pleasant scents and germ-fighting abilities.

Common Terpenes in cleaning products and cosmetics.
Common Terpenes in cleaning products and cosmetics.

Some terpenes even dissolve grease and oil. D-limonene (citrus peel extract) is often listed as an active ingredient in all-purpose cleaners and degreasers. It breaks up grime and grease naturally without synthetic chemicals.

Cosmetics also capitalize on terpenes. Linalool offers a delicate floral scent to lotions. Limonene and pinene infuse an uplifting aroma to products. Menthol provides cooling sensation. Cosmetics leverage the fragrance, flavor and bioactive properties of terpenes.

Pest Control

Given their natural bioactivity, terpenes have a long history of use as insecticides and pest repellents. Citronella oil high in citronellol wards off mosquitoes. Other terpenes work as natural solutions against fleas, moths, roaches and plant diseases.

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Terpenes are natures natural pesticides.

With increased pest resistance to synthetic pesticides, terpene-based insecticides and repellents offer safer and eco-friendly alternatives. They biodegrade rapidly avoiding environmental accumulation.

Industrial Applications Some terpenes work as green solvents for their ability to dissolve substances. D-limonene safely dissolves oils, waxes, greases and resins. It replaces harsh solvents like toluene as an ecologically-friendly option.

The adhesive industry uses terpene derivatives in formulas for pressure-sensitive tapes, labels, laminates and more. Terpenes can also wet surfaces helping adhesive spread and penetrate better.

This is just a sampling of the many practical uses and applications of terpenes in our everyday lives. Their multi-sensory properties coupled with ecological advantages make terpenes highly versatile across many industries from food to medicine and beyond.

The Abundance of Terpenes in Nature

Terpenes represent the largest and most widespread class of phytochemicals in the plant kingdom. They are produced profusely as main constituents of essential oils and resins.

Beyond aroma and flavor, terpenes play vital ecological roles for plant survival. As potent biochemicals, terpenes help plants:

Terpenes are abundant in nature.
  • Attract pollinators
  • Deter herbivores
  • Repel or kill pests/pathogens
  • Mediate symbiotic relationships.

Plants utilize terpenes as chemical messengers in communication, defense and reproduction. Some terpenes are toxic to competing plants inhibiting growth (allelopathy). Others alter soil chemistry to gain a competitive edge.

Given their ecological importance, terpenes are ubiquitous across the plant kingdom. They are found in abundance in:

Fruits – Most fruits contain high concentrations of terpenes that give them distinct aromas, flavors and colors. Citrus fruits are abundant in limonene while muskmelon has characteristic muscone (musk terpene). Mangoes brim with myrcene conveying lush, fruity notes. Even the characteristic flavors of apples (pinene) and grapes (linalool) arise from terpenes.

Herbs and Spices – Pungent herbs and spices owe their fragrance and taste to terpenes. Black pepper teems with caryophyllene while eucalyptol brings the cool sensation of mint. Thyme and oregano get their robust herbal quality from thymol and carvacrol terpenes. Ginger gets its zing from shogaols and zingerone. The piquant aroma of cloves comes from eugenol.

Flowers and Plants – Flowers across various species produce terpenes to attract pollinators. Lavender contains bountiful linalool bringing its soothing floral aroma. Similarly, geraniol and nerol terpenes impart the sweet rose fragrance to roses. Conifers are loaded with pinene giving forests their pine scent. Even cannabis showcases over 140 different terpenes.

Insects and Animals – Terpenes are not exclusive to the plant kingdom. Insects like swallowtail butterflies biosynthesize terpenes for defense. Their caterpillars absorb terpenes from host plants making themselves toxic or distasteful to predators. Some terpenoids found in truffles and cannabis may originate from microbial production.

In short, terpenes are integral natural compounds found across the biological world. Their production spans the plant, insect and microbial domains. Next time you catch a whiff of pine, lavender or cloves, that’s the sensory power of terpenes!

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The Entourage Effect: How Terpenes Interact with Other Compounds

In nature, terpenes rarely exist in isolation. More often, a mix of terpenes alongside other phytochemicals creates synergistic interactions that shape plant characteristics.

This biochemical “entourage effect” underlies the aroma, taste, color and medicinal benefits of plants.

Terpenes role in the entourage effect.
Terpenes role in the entourage effect.

Some key entourage effects of terpenes include:

Terpenes + Flavonoids

Flavonoids are color pigments in plants. Their interaction with terpenes influences flower color. Blue flowers owe their hue to anthocyanin flavonoids. Coexisting terpenes stabilize and modify the anthocyanin molecules producing variegated shades.

Terpenes + Cannabinoids

In cannabis, limonene amplifies absorption of THC and CBD through the blood-brain barrier. Myrcene also increases cell permeability allowing more cannabinoids to reach receptors. The terpene caryophyllene even binds to CB2 receptors directly making it psychoactive.

Terpenes + Curcuminoids

Curcumin, the main bioactive in turmeric, is fat soluble. Terpenes like d-limonene help curcumin dissolve and become more bioavailable to the body. This synergy enhances the anti-inflammatory benefits.

As these examples show, terpenes modulate bioactivity of other plant molecules from pigments to cannabinoids. The overall effect is amplified and balanced. Isolating single molecules misses these entourage benefits.

How Are Terpenes Created in Plants?

Terpenes are biosynthesized from basic molecular building blocks within plant cells. The primary precursor molecules for terpene synthesis include:

Terpenes are created by the plant.
Terpenes are created by the plant.

Acetyl Co-A – Derived from glycolysis, this coenzyme donates 2-carbon units
IPP (Isopentenyl pyrophosphate) – Formed from acetyl Co-A, IPP is a 5-carbon precursor
DMAPP (Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate) – Rearranged from IPP, DMAPP contains 5 carbons
IPP and DMAPP combine in a head-to-tail configuration to form monoterpenes, the C10 precursors to all terpenes.

This basic reaction is catalyzed by terpene synthase enzymes. Through alkylation, cyclization and oxidation steps, IPP and DMAPP are converted into the vast diversity of terpene structures.

For example, limonene synthase rearranges the geranyl pyrophosphate precursor into limonene. Further enzymatic steps add functional groups producing terpenoid derivatives.

The genes encoding these terpene synthesis enzymes have been widely studied and engineered in microbes for enhanced terpene production.

Certain growing conditions can also boost terpene content. Slow-dried cannabis often has higher terpene levels than rapidly dried cannabis. Stressors like high UV light and low nutrients may also stimulate terpene production.

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Health Benefits of Key Terpenes

While research is still emerging, some terpenes appear to offer therapeutic properties and health benefits. Here are a few well-studied terpenes with promising bioactivity:


This abundant terpene has well-researched anticancer effects. It induces cancer cell death and restricts tumor growth. Limonene’s antioxidant action also promotes heart health. As a potent antibacterial and antifungal, limonene boosts immunity and battles pathogens. It relieves heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux when taken orally.


Used medicinally since ancient times, pinene exhibits potent antimicrobial effects against a broad range of bacteria, fungi and viruses. It acts as an expectorant to help clear airways. Pinene’s ability to cross the blood-brain barrier also makes it neuroprotective.


This is the only terpene known to directly activate endocannabinoid receptors. It selectively binds to CB2 receptors producing anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects similar to cannabinoids. Caryophyllene holds promise for pain relief and autoimmune conditions.


With its calming floral aroma, linalool is a proven anxiolytic that alleviates anxiety, stress and depression. It acts on GABA receptors and serotonin pathways bringing relaxation and improved mood. Linalool also completely inhibits growth of certain fungi and bacteria.

Clearly, terpenes are more than just aromatic compounds. From anxiety to pain, infection to inflammation, targeted terpenes may offer therapeutic benefits in the future. However, more rigorous research in humans is still needed.

Let’s Wrap it Up!

Terpenes constitute the largest class of phytochemicals performing vital roles across the plant kingdom. They contribute to plant communication, defense and reproduction. For humans, terpenes impart tantalizing aromas and flavors that make foods more palatable and even bioactive.

Terpenes are present in cleaning and cosmetic products, food and beverage, medicine and more.
Terpenes are present in cleaning and cosmetic products, food and beverage, medicine and more.

In cannabis, terpenes alongside cannabinoids create the Entourage Effect that shapes strain-specific characteristics. Analyzing terpene profiles enables more intentional consumption based on desired effects and benefits.

Beyond cannabis, terpenes have diverse applications across our everyday lives. They are ubiquitous in cleaning and cosmetic products, food and beverage, medicine and more. Nature’s biochemical factory has crafted over 50,000 terpene structures contributing sensory richness and ecological intimacy to the world.

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Cannabis Industry

Does Weed Go Bad? A Complete Guide to Storing Cannabis Properly

Properly storing cannabis is essential for preserving its potency and quality over time. With the right storage methods like airtight containers in cool, dark spaces, weed can stay fresh for up to a year or longer.





Man holding weed- does weed go bad?

Cannabis, also known as weed or marijuana, is a popular recreational and medicinal drug derived from the cannabis plant. Like any other herb or agricultural product, cannabis does degrade over time if not stored properly. However, with the right storage methods, weed can maintain its potency and quality for extended periods.

In this comprehensive guide, we’ll cover everything you need to know about proper cannabis storage and signs of weed going bad. Read on to become an expert on keeping your bud fresh and avoiding degraded, ineffective marijuana.

Proper storage of weed prolongs quality.
Proper storage of weed prolongs quality. Complete guide to storing cannabis.

How Long Does Weed Last? Cannabis Shelf Life and Expiration

First, let’s go over the basics on weed’s shelf life. With optimal storage conditions, most strains of cured cannabis buds can last around:

  • 6-12 months – when kept in a cool, dark place in an airtight container. Refrigeration extends life up to 18 months.
  • 1-2 years – when vacuum sealed and frozen. Up to 2-3 years if no oxygen and stored below 0°F (-18°C).
  • 4+ years – with long term deep freezing using commercial equipment.

Exact shelf life depends on specific storage methods and the quality/dryness of buds before storage. Fresher weed stored optimally can potentially last longer.

Weed doesn’t necessarily “expire” but it will slowly lose potency and degrade in quality over time. This happens faster with exposure to air, heat, light, or moisture.

For best results, use your cannabis within 1 year of purchase/harvest. Smoke older weed first before tapping into your freshest supply. Check buds for signs of degradation periodically.

Now let’s look at the science behind cannabis longevity and what factors speed up deterioration.

Weed doesn't actually expire, but it will slowly lose potency.
Weed doesn’t actually expire, but it will slowly lose potency.

Why Weed Goes Bad: Causes of Cannabis Degradation

Cannabis plants produce hundreds of chemical compounds called cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids. The concentrations and balance of these chemicals determine weed’s potency, effects, aroma, and flavor.

Unfortunately, many of these compounds are delicate and break down when exposed to:

Oxygen and Moisture

Exposure to oxygen (oxidation) degrades THC, terpenes, and other chemicals over time. Moisture encourages growth of mold and bacteria. Both oxygen and moisture are enemy #1 when it comes to preserving your bud.

Heat and Light

THC and other cannabinoids are degraded by heat and light. Ideal storage temperature is 60-70°F (15-21°C). Higher heats accelerate chemical breakdown. UV light also rapidly destroys weed’s potency and quality.

Physical Damage

Improper handling can crush delicate trichomes (where cannabinoids are produced) and rupture cells containing flavor/aroma compounds. Grinding weed exposes more surface area to damaging oxygen and moisture.

By storing cannabis in cool, dark environments with minimal air exposure, you allow it to stay fresher longer.

Next, let’s go over some visual signs that your pot has gone past its prime.

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How to Tell If Weed Has Gone Bad: 7 Signs of Degraded Cannabis

Over time, weed will slowly lose its vivid colors, alluring smells, and crystal trichome coverage. By regularly checking stored cannabis (every 1-2 months), you can catch signs of degradation early.

Here’s what to look for to know if your pot has spoiled:

Loss of Green Color and Fading

Fresh cannabis has vivid and bright green colors. As chlorophyll breaks down over time, the greens become olive/brown and fade.

Browning and Drying Out

Oxidation causes browning and drying of the buds. They lose moisture and become brittle and crispy over time.

Mold Growth

Exposure to moisture can result in fuzzy white, grey, or green mold growing on buds. Moldy weed has usually gone too far past its prime to salvage.

Rotten Smells

Aroma is one of the first things to go as terpenes oxidize. Older buds lose their fruity/citrus smells and take on stale, rotten, decomposing odors.

Loss of Trichomes/Crystals

THC is produced in trichomes – the shiny, glue-like resin glands coating buds. As trichomes oxidize and break down, weed loses its “frosty” appearance.

Harsh Smoke and Bad Taste

Smoke from degraded buds tastes harsh and unpleasant. The smoke may be rough on the throat and lungs.

Weak, Non-Existent High

The ultimate sign your pot has gone bad is if it fails to get you high. The THC and other cannabinoids that cause weed’s effects degrade over time.

The more signs are present, the more cannabis quality has declined. Now let’s go over proper storage to keep your flower fresh.

Check for signs cannabis quality decline.
Check for signs cannabis quality decline.

How to Store Cannabis Correctly: 4 Key Tips

Here are 4 essential rules to follow for preserving your pot potency and shelf life:

Use Airtight Glass or Plastic Containers

Air exposure accelerates weed’s decline. Store in sealed airtight containers, like mason jars or plastic bags. Glass protects against light better than plastic. For very long term storage, use rigid airtight plastic or metal containers.

Keep Buds in Cool, Dark Places

Ideal storage temperature is 60-70°F (15-21°C), so avoid hot areas like garages or attics. Protect against light by storing in darkened rooms or opaque containers. Use amber colored jars to filter light.

Control Humidity with Boveda/Integra Packs

Too much moisture invites mold, while too little dries out trichomes. Use humidifier packs to maintain ideal humidity around 60%. Popular options are Boveda and Integra Boost packs.

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Freeze for Extended Storage

Freezing pot locks in freshness for 1-2+ years. Use air-tight, freezer-grade bags or containers. Double wrap to prevent freezer burn. Thaw fully before opening to prevent condensation.

Let’s explore these cannabis storage tips more in depth so you can make your weed last.

Best Ways to Store Weed: In-Depth Storage Methods

Here are some best practices for storing cannabis using various containers and strategies.

Mason Jars
Glass mason jars block light and form an airtight seal, making them a top choice for cannabis storage. Keep away from direct light. A small Boveda 62% pack can add two-way humidity control. Open periodically to “burp” and replace oxygen.

Plastic Bags
Plastic bags are cheap, disposable, and air-tight. Look for thick, high quality plastic for durability. Freezer bags work well. Squeeze out excess air before sealing and place in a cool dark spot. Not ideal for long term storage as plastic is porous.

Plastic Containers
Plastic containers keep out light, moisture, and air when sealed. Look for rigid, food-grade polyethylene plastic suited for freezing. Ensure a tight seal and open to air out regularly. Can also contain Boveda packs.

Vacuum Sealer Bags
Vacuum sealing pumps out oxygen for extended shelf life. It reduces aroma but retains potency. Use special vacuum sealer bags and double wrap for protection. Keep sealed bags frozen for 1-2 years of freshness.

Your refrigerator provides cool, dark storage around 40°F (4°C). Use airtight glass or plastic containers. Avoid storing weed near foods, especially produce, which can absorb smells. Don’t freeze weed in your refrigerator.

Freezers below 0°F (-18°C) give the longest shelf life of 2 years or more when vacuum sealed. Use special rigid plastic freezer containers or high quality bags to prevent freezer burn. Double wrap bags and squeeze out excess air before sealing.

Humidors with Boveda packs can store and cure cannabis at the same time. Keep humidors around 60-65% relative humidity and out of the light. Slow curing over 6+ months in a humidor can enhance weed’s aroma, flavor, and smoothness.

Best Ways to Store Weed. In-Depth Storage Method
Best Ways to Store Weed. In-Depth Storage Method

How Long Does Weed Last in Different Situations?

Here’s a quick reference for cannabis longevity:

  • Stored in a cool, dark place in an airtight container – Lasts 6-12 months
  • Kept at room temperature in a container/bag – Lasts 3-6 months
  • Stored in the freezer (-4 to 0°F) – Lasts 1-2 years
  • Vacuum sealed and kept in deep freezer (below 0°F) – Lasts 2-3 years
  • Kept in a refrigerator (36 to 40°F) – Lasts up to 1 year
  • Stored with a Boveda pack – Lasts 6-12+ months depending on temperature
  • Placed in an airtight bag/jar with minimal air – Lasts 6-9 months
  • Stored on your shelf or in a drawer in a bag – Lasts 3-6 months
  • Left out in the open air – Lasts 2-3 months before very degraded
  • Ground up into bud – Lasts 1-3 months or less depending on storage

As you can see, cool, minimal air exposure is key for longevity. Now let’s look at frequently asked questions on storing cannabis.

FAQs: Your Common Cannabis Storage Questions Answered

FAQs- Your Common Cannabis Storage Questions
FAQs- Your Common Cannabis Storage Questions

Here are answers to some of the most common questions about proper marijuana storage:

Does putting an orange peel in with weed keep it fresh?
No, adding produce can increase moisture and growth of mold. Orange peels also provide inconsistent humidity levels. Use Boveda packs instead for regulated humidity.

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How long does weed stay good for in a plastic baggie?
In an airtight plastic bag kept in a cool, dark space, weed can remain fresh for 3-6 months. Plastic is more porous than glass so not ideal for long term storage. Put baggies inside an opaque container to further protect from air and light.

Can you freeze weed in a plastic bag?
Yes, you can freeze cannabis in a plastic bag if done properly to prevent freezer burn. Use thick, high quality freezer bags. Squeeze out excess air before sealing tightly. Double bag for added protection. Limit freezing time to 1-2 months.

Should you keep weed in the fridge?
Your refrigerator can effectively store cannabis for 6-12 months if kept in an airtight container. Avoid freezing weed in the fridge to prevent moisture condensation when thawed. Keep weed away from fresh produce or foods with strong odors.

What is the best temperature to store cannabis?
Ideal storage temperature for weed is 60-70°F (15-21°C). Temperatures between 40-60°F are also acceptable. Higher temperatures accelerate degradation while freezing below 0°F provides the longest preservation.

Is it better to store weed with stems or without?
Without. Remove stems from cured buds prior to storage, as they can poke holes in bags/containers and introduce excess moisture. Stems also take up unnecessary space and weight.

Can you vacuum seal weed without crushing it?
Yes, you can successfully vacuum seal cannabis without compression by using rigid containers rather than bags. Place cured buds in an airtight plastic container, seal, then use the vacuum sealer to remove air from the container. This avoids squishing.

Does vacuum sealed weed lose potency?
Vacuum sealing extends shelf life but some terpenes and aromas may be diminished over time. However, THC and CBD potency can remain for 1-2 years or longer if frozen, making up for any minor terpene loss.

Following proper storage methods allows you to keep your cannabis fresh for as long as possible.

Reviving Old Weed: Is it Possible to Rehydrate Dry Cannabis?
If stored incorrectly, weed can dry out rapidly. While reviving extremely dried out, crumbling buds is difficult, you can sometimes rehydrate cannabis to regain a little bit of its lost moisture.

Here are two methods to try:

Use Boveda or Integra Boost Packs – Place desiccated buds in an airtight jar with a 62% humidity pack for 1-2 weeks, rotating daily. This slow humidification often improves texture.

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Use Orange or Lemon Peels – Add a peel or two to the jar of dry weed for 12-24 hours, rotating periodically. Monitor closely for any condensation or mold growth.

However, rehydrated weed usually won’t return to the exact smoothness, aroma, and potency of originally cured buds. And dried out cannabis is still degraded. For best effects, rehydration is only temporary to restore some moisture before consumption. Old weed generally won’t be revived back to its peak former glory.

What to Do with Bad Weed: What’s the Best Option?
So you checked your stash and discovered your weed has gone bad. Now what? Here are your options:

  1. Throw it Away
    If moldy or severely degraded, the best option is to cut your losses and toss the bad buds in the trash. Mold spores and bacteria can make you sick.
  2. Use for Edibles and Tinctures
    You can mask poor taste and harshness by infusing old weed into edibles or tinctures. The THC will cook into the food or alcohol, though potency has declined.
  3. Make Canna-Oil
    Another way to extract remaining cannabinoids from degraded flower is through canna-oils or butter. Simmering buds in oil will bind to and pull out some of the THC.
  4. Compost It
    If weed has simply dried out but no mold, you can toss it into your compost pile. Break it up thoroughly and mix it deep into the compost so no one picks it out. The nutrients will enrich your soil.
  5. Use for Joints or Blunts
    Harsh, bitter flower can be sandwiched between fresher bud when rolling joints or blunts. This masks some of the poor flavor of the degraded cannabis.

While you can salvage some uses from bad weed, it’s better to not let your marijuana deteriorate to this point in the first place. Follow proper storage from the start.

Key Takeaways: Keep Your Cannabis Fresh

Key takeaways about cannabis storage.
Key takeaways about cannabis storage.

Proper storage preserves weed’s potency and primes for peak enjoyment. Follow these core tips:

  • Store buds in airtight glass or plastic containers away from light, heat, and air
  • Use Boveda or Integra packs to maintain ideal humidity
  • Keep cannabis in cool, dark spaces around 60-70°F if possible
  • Freeze for long term storage of 1-2 years
  • Check buds and rotate stock to use oldest weed first
  • Frequently “burp” containers to refresh stale air
  • Watch for signs of degradation like smell, appearance, and texture

With the right storage, your weed will stay fresh and potent for months or even years. Now go enjoy your preserved cannabis at its full potential!

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